What do a dinosaur and a Victorian bridge canada goose factory sale have in common? Well, quite a lot actually. Now when you look at a bridge like this you don’t think about dinosaurs but a cunning piece canada goose store of science cross pollination canada goose clearance is allowing us to use engineering principles for studying bridges like this to help us better understand what dinosaurs ate.
Narration: Palaeontologists are turning to a computer based technique for analysing the stresses, strains and loads on all kinds of complex Canada Goose online engineering projects.
Finite Element Analysis divides a structure uk canada goose up into thousands of small blocks that can be analysed individually as Martyn Pavier from Bristol University explains.
canada goose store Dr Martyn Pavier: We’ve asked the computer to colour in the elements depending on the internal load so red’s very high and blue’s low canada goose store
canada goose black friday sale Narration: Finite Element Analysis allows engineers to look at how a structure will handle stress in much more detail than they have ever been able to before. canada goose black friday sale
Dr Martyn Pavier: Once upon a time you’d have to do back of an envelope calculations to work out how things will behave when you actually made something and tried it out but now you can do this. You can use finite element analysis.
Canada Goose Outlet Narration: canada goose coats on sale Across campus at Bristol University Palaeontologist Emily Rayfield is applying modern Finite Element canadian goose jacket Analysis to some very old bones. Canada Goose Outlet
Dr Emily Rayfield: The bones of fossils are really highly cheap canada goose uk engineered structures and so there’s a lot engineering can tell us about how animals were built, how they functioned and also how they evolved and how their shape changed over time and importantly why they’re shape changed over time too.
canada goose clearance Narration: The shapes of bones and skulls, in this case the skull of the meat eating dinosaur Allosaurus, are measured using CT scans. Emily’s computer takes the CT image buy canada goose jacket and breaks it up Canada Goose Parka into thousands of small elements. canada goose clearance
Paul: How many elements are there canada goose outlet in this model?
canada goose clearance sale Emily Rayfield: In this model there are about a quarter of a million elements. canada goose clearance sale
Paul: And for each of those little elements the computer to calculate how the forces are acting?
buy canada goose jacket cheap Dr Rayfield: Absolutely yeah so it can be quite computationally expensive. buy canada goose jacket cheap
canada goose Dr Emily Rayfield: What we can see here is where we see these flashes of green and yellow is where we’re getting peak amounts of stress when the animal’s biting. canada goose
canada goose coats on sale Narration: One problem with calculating loads and stresses in https://www.canadagoosestorevip.com dinosaur bones is that there are no dinosaur bones Canada Goose Coats On Sale around canada goose black friday sale today canada goose coats on sale
canada goose coats Dr Emily Rayfield: The problem with dealing with fossils if we want to do any engineering uk canada goose outlet analysis on them is that the bones have basically been fossilised, they’ve been mineralised, they don’t represent how the real bones would have bent or stretched for example. canada goose coats
canada goose deals Narration: So Emily needs to get some idea of how living bone reacts under stress. canada goose deals
Canada Goose Parka Paul: It’s a nice set up you’ve got here Emily but what does it all do? Canada Goose Parka
Canada Goose Jackets Dr Emily Rayfield: Well here you can see the jaws of an ostrich and attached to these jaws at the end of all these wires are four what are called strain gauges. Now these things are quite literally super glued to the Canada Goose Online bone; So what these gauges can do is canada goose coats they can actually detect how the jaw is bending so they can canada goose uk black friday pick up the string on the surface of the bone. Canada Goose Jackets
Narration: And you might wonder why Emily has chosen canada goose uk outlet something as exotic as an ostrich to conduct her studies on.
buy canada goose jacket Dr Emily Rayfield: Dinosaurs are basically bracketed on two sides by living relatives. On the one hand we’ve got crocodiles and on the other hand we’ve got birds. Now canada goose uk shop I’m particularly interested in theropod dinosaurs and they actually gave rise to the birds. So birds are a Canada Goose Outlet really good living model system for how dinosaur, particularly theropod bones, may actually have performed biomechanically. buy canada goose jacket
Canada Goose sale The thing that we’re not really sure of is really how accurately do they represent reality, because bone is quite a complex material and it’s quite difficult to represent that in your computer models. So what we can record the strain in the bone buy canada goose jacket cheap and then we can go build exactly the same modelling in the computer. Canada Goose sale
Narration: Emily uses the data from these bone tests to refine Canada Goose Jackets her computer models of dinosaur skulls
Canada Goose online Narration: On the other side Canada Goose sale of the planet they’re also using Finite Element Analysis to figure out how dinosaur skulls worked; but canada goose they’re taking a different approach. Canada Goose online
Steve Wroe at the University of New South Wales has also been applying Finite Element Analysis to a wide variety of animal skulls
canadian goose jacket Dr Stephen Wroe: We’re looking at everything from komodo dragons to great white sharks, and a range of living species. Perhaps six or seven fossil species such as sabre tooth tigers, the marsupial lion and a host of other beasties canadian goose jacket.